UW Gender & Women's Studies Librarian

Providing intersectional resources on gender, women, and feminism to the University of Wisconsin System and beyond since 1977.

1,593 notes &

ushistoryminuswhiteguys:

Hit the Source: Research, bibliographies, and databases. 
Sources are an interesting thing. If someone throws enough of them at you, you’re inclined to believe that what they’re saying is true, that all the sources are relevant, and that they’re all unbiased and accurate sources. 
This is not always true. Just like the news outlets, some of them have specific biases, or present information in misleading ways. But sources can be incredibly important, and immensely helpful for writing papers. 
Here’s why, as explained by Grinnell:

Citation is important because it is the basis of academics, that is, the pursuit of knowledge. In the academic endeavor, individuals look at evidence and reason about that evidence in their own individual ways. That is, taking what is already known, established, or thought, they use their reasoning power to create new knowledge. In creating this knowledge, they must cite their sources accurately for three main reasons:
Reason One: Because ideas are the currency of academia
Reason Two: Because failing to cite violates the rights of the person who originated the idea. (Implicit or Explicit claims the idea is yours is plagiarism). 
Reason Three: Because academics need to be able to trace the genealogy of ideas 

Read and save the PDF here. I have removed the explanations that follow the reasons for a quick read, but I recommend you go back and read them. It also answers the question: “Doesn’t the ownership of ideas reek of Capitalism?”, and gives a great run-down of citing yourself, citing other people, extended quotations, and laziness in writing.  
In summary: Ideas are valuable, they have ‘ownership’ and ‘credit’ to the people who had them, and tracing how and why ideas change can help you learn. Pretending ideas are of your own invention is plagiarism. 
So what about doing research? People paste long bibliographies and that doesn’t seem to do anything. Why are those needed? 
Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies are a list of sources regarding a particular subject or topic - or directly relevant to a particular paper. They may look something like this:

— Screencap of Bibliography: Free People of Color and Creoles of Color
Sometimes, bibliographies are annotated, meaning they give a short description of each entry - perhaps a paragraph of information explaining each source, its usefulness, a summary, or other pertinent information. Annotated bibliographies can cut down on the time you spend trying to determine if a source is relevant for you. 
Purdue OWL gives samples of Annotated Bibliographies here. Here’s a student project from U Michigan that shows an annotated bibliography regarding Chicanos and identity. Here's a much more elaborate annotated bibliography regarding Native American history in Federal Documents. You can see there's a big difference between an extensive annotated bibliography, and a concise one. Both formats, however, can tell you what the bibliography's author thinks of the sources. 
This means that the author of the bibliography may be biased or disregard things that aren’t useful to them, but may be helpful to you! 
The accepted citation format for history and art history is Chicago style, a quick guide can be found here.
Citations tell you: Who wrote or edited something, where it was published, who published it, when it was published, and the title. It can even tell you the volume, edition, and translator. 
When you find a book or journal related to something you’re trying to learn more about, you can look at footnotes, or the bibliography in order to find where they got their information. 
Say I’m looking up slave culture in New Orleans:

Donaldson, Gary A. A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 63-72.

I find this article online, and access it through a database. (I used JStor, in this case.) It was published in 1984, so I already know that anything this paper cites came out in 1984 or before 1984. 
The footnotes (or end notes, in this case, because they came at the end of the paper) tell me where the author got their information:

This author even annotated their endnotes, telling us more information about the sources they used. If any of those end notes seem relevant to me, I can write them down, and look for them later. 
But since this was published in 1984, it might also be helpful to see who has mentioned this paper since 1984 for more current information. 
JStor and Google Scholar (as well as other databases) have helpful buttons like these:


"2 items citing this item"
Other items (written works by the author)
References
and Related Items.

Clicking on “2 items citing this item” gives me a list of things published after the article came out in 1984 that cite this. It actually gives me 3 things when I click on the button:


Pinkster: An Atlantic Creole Festival in a Dutch-American Context
Jeroen Dewulf The Journal of American Folklore Vol. 126, No. 501 (Summer 2013) pp. 245-271 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/jamerfolk.126.501.0245



"Midnight Scenes and Orgies": Public Narratives of Voodoo in New Orleans and Nineteenth-Century Discourses of White Supremacy Michelle Y. Gordon American Quarterly Vol. 64, No. 4 (December 2012) pp. 767-786 

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/41809523



Enclosure and Run: The Fugitive Recyclopedia of Harryette Mullen’s Writing Robin Tremblay-McGaw MELUS Vol. 35, No. 2, Multi-Ethnic Poetics (SUMMER 2010) pp. 71-94 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20720704



They were published in 2010, 2012, and 2013, and while they may not all be helpful, this is how you get a good start looking for things that can help you in your research. It’s a bit like a treasure hunt. You have to follow the directions and clues to find the information you need or want. "Scholarly peer review" is a phrase that means that the information you see has been reviewed, critiqued, or tested by other scholars to see if the information holds up. You can also search for reviews of journal articles. 

Check your sources are related to what you want to talk about or are claiming, see if they are legitimate. 


Writing a Thesis Statement - UNC 
Scholarly vs. Non-Scholarly 1 | 2 | 3
Finding Academic Articles
The CRAAP test
Distinguishing among Scholarly, Popular, and Trade Journals
Locating a Scholarly or Professional Journal 
Evaluating Sources
Why Everything Isn’t Available Online and Free
How to Read Citations (video)
Berkeley Primary History Sources
Yale’s Art History & Archaeology source list & Guide
Previous USH-WG Guide

ushistoryminuswhiteguys:

Hit the Source: Research, bibliographies, and databases. 

Sources are an interesting thing. If someone throws enough of them at you, you’re inclined to believe that what they’re saying is true, that all the sources are relevant, and that they’re all unbiased and accurate sources. 

This is not always true. Just like the news outlets, some of them have specific biases, or present information in misleading ways. But sources can be incredibly important, and immensely helpful for writing papers. 

Here’s why, as explained by Grinnell:

Citation is important because it is the basis of academics, that is, the pursuit of knowledge. In the academic endeavor, individuals look at evidence and reason about that evidence in their own individual ways. That is, taking what is already known, established, or thought, they use their reasoning power to create new knowledge. In creating this knowledge, they must cite their sources accurately for three main reasons:

Reason One: Because ideas are the currency of academia

Reason Two: Because failing to cite violates the rights of the person who originated the idea. (Implicit or Explicit claims the idea is yours is plagiarism). 

Reason Three: Because academics need to be able to trace the genealogy of ideas 

Read and save the PDF here. I have removed the explanations that follow the reasons for a quick read, but I recommend you go back and read them. It also answers the question: “Doesn’t the ownership of ideas reek of Capitalism?”, and gives a great run-down of citing yourself, citing other people, extended quotations, and laziness in writing.  

In summary: Ideas are valuable, they have ‘ownership’ and ‘credit’ to the people who had them, and tracing how and why ideas change can help you learn. Pretending ideas are of your own invention is plagiarism. 

So what about doing research? People paste long bibliographies and that doesn’t seem to do anything. Why are those needed? 

Bibliographies and Annotated Bibliographies are a list of sources regarding a particular subject or topic - or directly relevant to a particular paper. They may look something like this:

image

— Screencap of Bibliography: Free People of Color and Creoles of Color

Sometimes, bibliographies are annotated, meaning they give a short description of each entry - perhaps a paragraph of information explaining each source, its usefulness, a summary, or other pertinent information. Annotated bibliographies can cut down on the time you spend trying to determine if a source is relevant for you. 

Purdue OWL gives samples of Annotated Bibliographies here. Here’s a student project from U Michigan that shows an annotated bibliography regarding Chicanos and identity. Here's a much more elaborate annotated bibliography regarding Native American history in Federal Documents. You can see there's a big difference between an extensive annotated bibliography, and a concise one. Both formats, however, can tell you what the bibliography's author thinks of the sources. 

This means that the author of the bibliography may be biased or disregard things that aren’t useful to them, but may be helpful to you! 

The accepted citation format for history and art history is Chicago style, a quick guide can be found here.

Citations tell you: Who wrote or edited something, where it was published, who published it, when it was published, and the title. It can even tell you the volume, edition, and translator. 

When you find a book or journal related to something you’re trying to learn more about, you can look at footnotes, or the bibliography in order to find where they got their information. 

Say I’m looking up slave culture in New Orleans:

Donaldson, Gary A. A Window on Slave Culture: Dances at Congo Square in New Orleans, 1800-1862.” Journal of Negro History 69, no. 2 (Spring 1984): 63-72.

I find this article online, and access it through a database. (I used JStor, in this case.) It was published in 1984, so I already know that anything this paper cites came out in 1984 or before 1984. 

The footnotes (or end notes, in this case, because they came at the end of the paper) tell me where the author got their information:

image

This author even annotated their endnotes, telling us more information about the sources they used. If any of those end notes seem relevant to me, I can write them down, and look for them later. 

But since this was published in 1984, it might also be helpful to see who has mentioned this paper since 1984 for more current information. 

JStor and Google Scholar (as well as other databases) have helpful buttons like these:

image

"2 items citing this item"

Other items (written works by the author)

References

and Related Items.

Clicking on “2 items citing this item” gives me a list of things published after the article came out in 1984 that cite this. It actually gives me 3 things when I click on the button:

(via asianhistory)

Filed under references reference research long post

175,710 notes &

ccoastal:

hanars:

luckykrys:

thecreach:

luckykrys:

"Anne Bonny and Mary Read were pirates, as renowned for their ruthlessness as for their gender, and during their short careers challenged the sailors’ adage that a woman’s presence on shipboard invites bad luck."
Sculpture by Erik Christianson.

I’m not entirely sure that the statue really needed to have a tit out.

How dare women try to have nipples.

Actually I’ve seen this before and I can tell you— it’s because these women were bad ass pirates and when they killed someone they’d expose one or both breasts so that when their victim died, (s)he knew that they were killed by a woman.

ACTUALLY Anne Bonny purposely wore loose fitting clothes and displayed her breasts openly at all times during battle - mainly because men were distracted by them, and she took pleasure in killing said men while they were too busy staring at her breasts. Mary Read dressed mainly as a man (after posing as her deceased brother, Mark, for the entirety of her childhood) and both ladies cross-dressed from time to time, hopping between ships. They were known as the ‘fierce hell cats’ due to their ferocious tempers, and were key elements to Captain ‘Calico Jack’ Rackham’s crew - they were the only two known female pirates in the Golden Age of Caribbean piracy. IN FACT, when the ship was captured by the British Navy, Anne and Mary were the ONLY TWO pirates who fought while the males of the crew hid - they were all tried to be hung as pirates but Bonny and Read were both pregnant and were pardoned.
Calico Jack was a lover to Bonny, and as he was to be hung, Bonny’s final words to him were, “Had you fought like a man, you need not be hung like a dog.” Bonny and Read were possibly two of the most badass fucking pirates and they were FEMALE. The more you know. 

ccoastal:

hanars:

luckykrys:

thecreach:

luckykrys:

"Anne Bonny and Mary Read were pirates, as renowned for their ruthlessness as for their gender, and during their short careers challenged the sailors’ adage that a woman’s presence on shipboard invites bad luck."

Sculpture by Erik Christianson.

I’m not entirely sure that the statue really needed to have a tit out.

How dare women try to have nipples.

Actually I’ve seen this before and I can tell you— it’s because these women were bad ass pirates and when they killed someone they’d expose one or both breasts so that when their victim died, (s)he knew that they were killed by a woman.

ACTUALLY Anne Bonny purposely wore loose fitting clothes and displayed her breasts openly at all times during battle - mainly because men were distracted by them, and she took pleasure in killing said men while they were too busy staring at her breasts. Mary Read dressed mainly as a man (after posing as her deceased brother, Mark, for the entirety of her childhood) and both ladies cross-dressed from time to time, hopping between ships. They were known as the ‘fierce hell cats’ due to their ferocious tempers, and were key elements to Captain ‘Calico Jack’ Rackham’s crew - they were the only two known female pirates in the Golden Age of Caribbean piracy. IN FACT, when the ship was captured by the British Navy, Anne and Mary were the ONLY TWO pirates who fought while the males of the crew hid - they were all tried to be hung as pirates but Bonny and Read were both pregnant and were pardoned.

Calico Jack was a lover to Bonny, and as he was to be hung, Bonny’s final words to him were, “Had you fought like a man, you need not be hung like a dog.” Bonny and Read were possibly two of the most badass fucking pirates and they were FEMALE. The more you know. 

(via fuckyeahwomenprotesting)

213 notes &

What Men Can Do To Be Better Allies

becauseiamawoman:

image

By: Alexis M.

Allies are an important aspect of any community. Although men are directly affected by patriarchy as women are, men are also direct beneficiaries of this type of social order. To have male allies involved in the feminist community is extremely important because it shows solidarity within the feminist community and it puts a huge emphasis on male engagement in reversing and questioning the effects sexism has had on our society.

For clarity, an ally is an individual or group who join with other individuals/groups to achieve a common goal. For example, since the purpose of the feminist community is to combat sexism, male allies are people who join the feminist community to contribute to this goal as well.

It is so important to have allies in any community because it shows that this issues faced by that group are not just issues that that group as a singular entity needs to solve on its own. Rather, it’s a human rights issue which needs the help and support of other communities in order to resolve the current problems. Sexism is not just a women’s issue, transphobia is not just a trans issue, homophobia is not just the LGBTQ’s issue, racism is not just people of colour’s issue. They are all human rights issues which need to be addressed by all communities.

As someone who has a lot of male friends who identify as feminist or with feminist ideals here are a few tips on what they can do to be better allies.

Tip #1: Listen

To be an ally to a community is to be someone who is concerned with the treatment and issues that another group in society has. The best way to really understand issues in the feminist community is to be an active listener. Listen to the experiences of others and to the concerns they have, then take those concerns and experiences at face-value as legitimate.

You may feel the need to speak a lot in workshops, during group conversations and at meetings, and it’s great that you want to contribute to conversations about and with feminists, but be aware of how much time you are taking up. Your role as an ally is to help lift up the voices of others, but not to talk over them. Ask yourself: Are you dominating the conversation? Are you dictating it’s flow? Are you making it about yourself? Make sure you are aware of these things when you’re speaking in feminist spaces.

Tip #2: Self-Awareness

Speaking of awareness… self-awareness is key to becoming a better ally to the feminist community. This means being mindful of your presence, of the space you take up, of the way you speak and other things you may have not considered in your daily routine such as the privilege you have as a man.

Male privilege is essentially the ways in which men benefit in society over other groups based on their maleness. Examples of male privilege are not getting cat called while walking down the street, feeling generally safe walking home at night, being hired for a job because you are male even though you and other female applicants may have the exact same credentials, having your sex represented in multi-faceted ways in different forms of media, the chances of your personal mistakes/failure being attributed to your entire sex are slim… the list goes on and on.

The point of recognizing or checking your own privilege is to challenge the way you have interpreted the world and question ideas that reinforce gender norms. By checking your own privilege and realizing the advantages you have in social, political and economic spheres over other groups, you have already taken a big step forward in being an ally to the feminist community.

For more on how to identify your own privilege and call others out on theirs, don’t forget to check out our Feminist Dictionary entry on privilege.

Tip #3: Do Not Play Devil’s Advocate

As a philosophy major I can understand the appeal of playing devil’s advocate in hypothetical, philosophical situations/discussions, but when you’re dealing with the lived experiences of real people this is not okay.

If you’re coming into a feminist space to ruffle feathers, argue pointlessly and start a fight it is not the space for you.

Of course there are legitimate criticisms that can be discussed within a feminist community such as inclusivity, diversity, representation, etc. It’s great if you want to discuss those issues, but if you’re coming into a feminist space with the mentality that you need to prove someone wrong, then you really need to reconsider if you have sincere intentions for wanting to be more involved within the feminist community.

Tip #4: Get Active

A great way to get involved in the feminist community is to go to rallies, protests, workshops and events hosted by local feminist groups. Donate to a local women’s shelter and volunteer your time if you are able. Getting active is a great way to be a better ally because it shows that you want to be involved and want to learn more and do more for the community.

If you don’t have the time to be physically present at rallies or organizations that’s okay! There are plenty of amazing online communities that can help you get your start in feminist activism. Tumblr has a huge feminist community that was actually the first place which sparked my love of feminism. Consider creating a feminist tumblr or join a discussion forum on feminism. Everday Feminism has great online forums to help get you involved and connect you to other feminists!

Tip #5: Do Your Research

I cannot begin to count the amount of times that I have been used as a feminist encyclopedia for my male friends. I don’t mind being asked questions, but there comes a point where it becomes exhausting and irritating. Answering the same basic questions over and over again is not fun, and if you’re really interested in feminism then there is plenty of literature available at your disposal.

Do your own research, don’t make feminists explain why their oppression matters. Don’t make them prove to you that it is a legitimate concern. We don’t owe you that information. You owe it to yourself, however, to learn about these issues.

Tip #6: Call Others Out

If you see sexism being perpetuated by your friends or other people you know in your life, call them out on it. Explain to them that what they may be doing/saying is really harmful to women (i.e. catcalling, calling women inappropriate slurs, degrading women). Question their values and ideas, especially in spaces where women aren’t present.

For example, if one of your guy friends makes a joke about sexual harassment, rape, violence against women etc. tell them it isn’t funny. You don’t necessarily owe them an explanation as to why it isn’t funny but it couldn’t hurt to explain why exactly the jokes they are telling are problematic and harmful.

Being a feminist is a full time job and you can’t pick when to be one and when not to be. If you want to be a good ally, you need to be one in every space you are in.

Want to learn some more tips on becoming a better ally? Check out these articles:

Filed under feminism can men be feminists male feminists allies intersectionality bciaw alexis

50 notes &

The Secret to Staying Happily Married During and After a Gender Transition

(Source: transqueermediaexchange, via bisexual-books)

Filed under Diane Anderson-Minshall Jacob Anderson-Minshall trans transgender Trans Authors Bisexual Authors interviews

280 notes &

"I am a feminist, and what that means to me is the same as the meaning of the fact that I am Black. It means that I must undertake to love myself and respect myself as though my very life depends upon self-love and self-respect. It means that I must seek to cleanse myself of the hatred and contempt that surround and permeate my identity as a woman and as a Black human being in this world. It means that the achievement of self-love and self-respect will require hourly vigilance. It means that I am entering my soul in a struggle that will most certainly transform all the peoples of the earth: the movement into self-love, self-respect and self-determination is the movement now galvanizing the true majority of human beings everywhere." ~ June Jordan

Jordan, J. (1990). Where is her love? In G. Anzaldúa (Ed.) Making face, make soul: Creative and critical perspectives by women of color (pp. 174-177). San Franciso: Aunt Lute Foundation. (via sincecombahee)

happy bornday, June Jordan.

(via so-treu)

(via guerrillafeminism)

Filed under june jordan black feminist woc intersectionality feminism feminist